Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Erupted Material Essay Example for Free
Erupted Material quizAnother way of classifying volcanoes is by the composition of material erupted (lava), since this affects the shape of the volcano. Lava can be broadly categorize into 4 different compositions (Cas Wright, 1987) * If the erupted magma contains a high percentage (63%) of silica, the lava is called felsic. * Felsic lavas (dacites or rhyolites) tend to be highly viscous (not very fluid) and argon erupted as domes or short, stubby flows. Viscous lavas tend to formstratovolcanoes or lava domes.Lassen Peak in California is an example of a volcano formed from felsic lava and is actually a large lava dome. * Because siliceous magmas atomic number 18 so viscous, they tend to trap volatiles (gases) that are present, which cause the magma to erupt catastrophically, eventually forming stratovolcanoes. Pyroclastic flows (ignimbrites) are highly crazy products of such volcanoes, since they are composed of molten volcanic ash too heavy to go up into the atmosphere, s o they hug the volcanos slopes and travel far from their vents during large eruptions.Temperatures as high as 1,200 C are known to occur in pyroclastic flows, which will incinerate everything flammable in their path and thick layers of acrid pyroclastic flow deposits can be laid down, often up to some(prenominal) meters thick. Alaskas Valley of Ten grand piano Smokes, formed by the eruption of Novarupta near Katmai in 1912, is an example of a thick pyroclastic flow or ignimbrite deposit. Volcanic ash that is light enough to be erupted high into the Earths atmosphere may travel many kilometres before it falls back to ground as a tuff. If the erupted magma contains 5263% silica, the lava is of intermediate composition.* These andesitic volcanoes in general only occur above subduction zones (e. g. Mount Merapi in Indonesia). * Andesitic lava is typically formed at convergent limit margins of tectonic plates, by several processes * Hydration melting of peridotite and fractional cry stallization Sarychev Peak eruption, Matua Island, oblique satellite mentation * Melting of subducted slab containing sedimentscitation needed * Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in an intermediate reservoir prior to emplacement or lava flow.If the erupted magma contains 45% silica, the lava is called mafic (because it contains higher percentages of magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe)) orbasaltic. These lavas are usually much less viscous than rhyolitic lavas, depending on their eruption temperature they also tend to be hotter than felsic lavas. Mafic lavas occur in a wide range of settings * At mid-ocean ridges, where two oceanic plates are pulling apart, basaltic lava erupts as pillows to fill the gap * Shield volcanoes (e. g. the Hawaiian Islands, including Mauna Loa and Kilauea), on both oceanic and continental crust * As continental flood basalts.