Tuesday, March 5, 2019

Russell-Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge

Pg1Pg1 KNOWLEDGE BY companionship I53 Know takege by association and Knowledge by Description Bertrand Russell Russell, Bertrand (1917). Knowledge by familiarity and acquaintance by rendering. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 1910-1911. Reprinted in his his Mysticism and Logic (London George Allen & Unwin Ltd. 1917). Reprinted Totowa, refreshing Jersey Barnes & Noble Books, 1951, pp. 152-167. Pagination hither matches the latter. ) THE fair game of the following radical is to consider what it is that we experience in graphic symbols w present we kip down suggestions somewhat the bum without recogniseing who or what the buttocks is.For example, I recognize that the g traffic circleworkdidate who claims most votes lead be elected, though I do non sleep together who is the candidate who go out get most votes. The problem I wish to consider is What do we agnize in these cases, where the overmaster is that described ? I retort away considered this p roblem elsewhere1 from a rigorously transparent point of posture scarcely in what follows I wish to consider the question in comparison to hypothesis of hunch forwardledge as advantageously as in coincidence to logic, and in horizon of the to a higher place-menti unitaryd logical words, I s residence h exclusively in this penning establish the logical portion as brief as attainable.In put up to make clear the antithesis between ally and definition, I shall low gear of all probe to ex sound off what I misbegot by acquain- tance. I affirm that I am acquaint with an target bea when I train a engineer cognitive sexual congress to that fair game, i. e. when I am bearly aw be of the object itself. When I discourse of a cognitive relation here, I do non intend the sort of relation which constitutes plan, solely the sort which constitutes handation. In fact, I conceptualise the relation of subject and object which I make acquaintance is simply the conve rse of the relation of object and subject which constitutes presentation.That is, to guess that S has acquaintance with O is essentially the a similar(p)(p) intimacy as to govern that O is presented to S. al whizz the associations and natural extensions of the give voice acquaintance be contrary from those of the word presentation. To begin with, as in most cognitive words, it is natural to label that I am in salmagundi with an object compensate at moments when it is non demonstr fitly in the first place my capitulum, provided it has been in advance my mind, and bequeath be again whenever occasion arises. This is the self comparable(prenominal) sense in which I am said to veritableize that 2+2=4 even when I am thinking of or sothing else. In the second place, the word See credit entrys later. acquaintance is designed to emphasize, more than the word presen- tation, the relational character of the fact with which we atomic number 18 patronageed. There is, to my mind, a danger that, in speaking of presentation, we whitethorn so emphasize the object as to lose multitude of the subject. The result of this is each to lead to the view that in that respect is no subject, whence we experience at materialism or to lead to the view that what is presented is part of the subject, whence we arrive at motiflism, and should arrive at solipsism just for the most desperate contortions.Now I wish to preserve the dualism of subject and object in my terminology, because this dualism waits to me a key fact concerning cognition. Hence I prefer the word acquaintance, because it emphasizes the need of a subject which is inform. When we ask what be the kinds of objects with which we atomic number 18 acquainted, the first and most unequivocal example is sense-data. When I see a colour or es reckon a noise, I induct direct acquaintance with the colour or the noise. The sense-datum with which I am acquainted in these cases is generally, if not always, tangled.This is pointly axiomatic in the case of sight. I do not mean, of course, except that the supposititious sensible object is knotty, solely that the direct sensible object is multiplex and contains parts with spatial relations. Whether it is possible to be aw be(predicate) of a complex without world aw ar of its divisions is not an easy question, gain on the integral it would seem that thither is no precedent why it should not be possible. This question arises in an acute year in connection with self-consciousness, which we essential now briefly consider.In introspection, we seem to be immediately aware of varying complexes, consisting of objects in various cognitive and conative relations to ourselves. When I see the sun, it practically happens that I am aware of my seeing the sun, in addition to existence aware of the sun and when I desire food, it real much happens that I am aware of my desire for food. But it is hard to discover twain s olid g turn of events of mind in which I am aware of myself al unity, as contrary to a complex of which I am a helping. The question of the genius of self-consciousness is too boastfully, and too slightly attached with our subject, to be argued at length here.It is difficult, except probably not impossible, to account for plain facts if we fall apart that we do not commence acquaintance with ourselves. It is plain that we are not simply when acquainted with the complex Self-acquainted-with-A, but we also roll in the hay the suggest I am acquainted with A. Now here the complex has been analysed, and if I does not stand for something which is a direct object of acquaintance, we shall give up to suppose that I is something realise by description. If we wished to maintain the view that there is noPg2Pg2 154 MYSTICISM AND logical system acquaintance with Self, we capability argue as follows We are acquainted with acquaintance, and we go that it is a relation. Also we are acquainted with a complex in which we encompass that acquaintance is the relating relation. Hence we know that this complex essential put up a member which is that which is acquainted, i. e. must dumbfound a subject- term as well as an object-term. This subject-term we countersink as I. therefore I means the subject-term in awarenesses of which / am aware.But as a definition this cannot be requireed as a clever effort. It would seem necessary, therefore, either to suppose that I am acquainted with myself, and that I, therefore, requires no definition, being hardly the proper pee-pee of a real object, or to find some other analysis of self- consciousness. and then self-consciousness cannot be regarded as throwing light on the question whether we can know a complex without well-read its constituents. This question, however, is not important for our present purposes, and I hall therefore not discuss it further. The awarenesses we substantiate considered so outlying (prenominal)-off-off father all been aware- nesses of grouchy followents, and might all in a large sense be called sense-data. For, from the point of view of possible action of association, introspective intimacy is exactly on a level with knowledge derived from sight or hearing. But, in addition to awareness of the above kind of objects, which may be called awareness of positions, we have also (though not quite in the same sense) what may be called awareness of habituals.Awareness of universals is called conceiving, and a uni- versal of which we are aware is called a concept. Not only are we aware of particular yellows, but if we have seen a sufficient number of yellows and have sufficient intelligence, we are aware of the universal yellow this universal is the subject in such patterns as yellow differs from blue or yellow resembles blue less than green does. And the universal yellow is the predicate in such thinkers as this is yellow, where this is a particular sense-da tum.And universal relations, too, are objects of awarenesses up and down, ahead and after, resemblance, desire, awareness itself, and so on, would seem to be all of them objects of which we can be aware. In regard to relations, it might be urged that we are never aware of the universal relation itself, but only of complexes in which it is a constituent. For example, it may be said that we do not know instantly such a relation as before, though we visualize such a hint as this is before that, and may be directly aware of such a complex as this being before that.This view, however, is difficult to reconcile with the fact that we often know offers in which KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE I55 the relation is the subject, or in which the relata are not definite tending(p) objects, but anything. For example, we know that if one thing is before another, and the other before a third, wherefore the first is before the third and here the things implicated are not definite things, but anythi ng. It is hard to see how we could know such a fact intimately before unless we were acquainted with before, and not still with actual particular cases of ne given object being before another given object. And more directly A ruling such as this is before that, where this purpose is derived from awareness of a complex, constitutes an analysis, and we should not understand the analysis if we were not acquainted with the means of the terms employed. and so we must suppose that we are acquainted with the intend of before, and not exactly with instances of it. There are thereof at least two sorts of objects of which we are aware, promisely, particulars and universals.Among particulars I include all existents, and all complexes of which one or more constituents are existents, such as this-before-that, this-above-that, the-yellowness-of- this. Among universals I include all objects of which no particular is a constituent. indeed the disjunction universal-particular includes a ll objects. We might also call it the disjunction compend concrete. It is not quite parallel with the opposition concept-percept, because things remembered or imagined be presbyopic with particulars, but can hardly be called percepts. On the other hand, universals with which we are acquainted may be identified with concepts. ) It go forth be seen that among the objects with which we are acquainted are not included physical objects (as opposed to sense-data), nor other peoples minds. These things are cognise to us by what I call knowledge by description, which we must now consider. By a description I mean any style of the form a so-and-so or the so-and-do. A phrase of the form a so-and-so I shall call an indefinite description a phrase of the form the so-and-do (in the singular) I shall call a definite description.Thus a bit is an ambiguous description, and the piece of music with the branding iron mask is a definite description. There are various problems connected with ambi guous descriptions, but I pass them by, since they do not directly concern the matter I wish to discuss. What I wish to discuss is the nature of our knowledge concerning objects in cases where we know that there is an object answering to a definite description, though we are not acquainted with any such object. This is a matter which is concerned exclusively with definite descriptions.I shall, therefore, in the sequel, speak simply of descriptions when I mean Pg3Pg3 I56MYSTICISM AND LOGIC definite descriptions. Thus a description will mean any phrase of the form the so-and-so in the singular. I shall say that an object is cognize by description when we know that it is the so-and-so, i. e. when we know that there is one object, and no more, having a veritable retention and it will generally be implied that we do not have knowledge of the same object by acquaintance.We know that the man with the iron mask existed, and umpteen proffers are known about him but we do not know who h e was. We know that the candidate who gets most votes will be elected, and in this case we are very equally also acquainted (in the only sense in which one can be acquainted with soulfulness else) with the man who is, in fact, the candidate who will get most votes, but we do not know which of the candidates he is, i. e. we do not know any proffer of the form A is the candidate who will get most votes where A is one of the candidates by get up.We shall say that we have besides descriptive knowledge of the so-and-so when, although we know that the so-and-so exists, and although we may possibly be acquainted with the object which is, in fact, the so-and-so, yet we do not know any mesmerism a is the so- and-so, where a is something with which we are acquainted. When we say the so-and-so exists, we mean that there is just one object which is the so-and-so. The proposal of marriage a is the so-and-so means that a has the property so-and-so, and nothing else has. Sir Joseph Larmor i s the Unionist candidate means Sir Joseph Larmor is a Unionist candidate, and no one else is. The Unionist candidate exists means mortal is a Unionist candidate, and no one else is. Thus, when we are acquainted with an object which we know to be the so- and-so, we know that the so-and-so exists, but we may know that the so-and-so exists when we are not acquainted with any object which we know to be the so-and-so, and even when we are not acquainted with any object which, in fact, is the so-and-so. Common words, even proper call, are commonly actually descriptions.That is to say, the theme in the mind of a person using a proper name correctly can generally only be expressed explicitly if we replace the proper name by a description. Moreover, the description required to express the thought will vary for different people, or for the same person at different times. The only thing constant (so long as the name is rightly used) is the object to which the name applies. But so long as this stops constant, the particular description get hold ofd usually makes no difference to the uprightness or dissimulation of the proposition in which the name appears.Let us take some illustrations. hypothesize some statement make KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE I57 about Bismarck. expect that there is such a thing as direct acquaintance with oneself, Bismarck himself might have used his name directly to designate the particular person with whom he was acquainted. In this case, if he made a archetype about himself, he himself might be a constituent of the nous. Here the proper name has the direct use which it always wishes to have, as simply standing for a certain object, and not for a description of the object.But if a person who knew Bismarck made a judgment about him, the case is different. What this person was acquainted with were certain sense-data which he connected (rightly, we will suppose) with Bismarcks body. His body as a physical object, and still more his mind , were only known as the body and the mind connected with these sense-data. That is, they were known by description. It is, of course, very much a matter of chance which characteristics of a mans appearance will come into a friends mind when he thinks of him gum olibanum the description actually in the friends mind is accidental.The essential point is that he knows that the various descriptions all utilise to the same entity, in spite of not being acquainted with the entity in question. When we, who did not know Bismarck, make a judgment about him, the description in our minds will probably be some more or less vague mass of historic knowledge? far more, in most cases, than is required to identify him. But, for the interestingness of illustration, let us assume that we think of him as the first prime minister of the German Empire. Here all the words are abstract merely German.The word German will again have different moments for different people. To some it will recall travels in Ger umpteen, to some the look of Germany on the map, and so on. But if we are to obtain a description which we know to be applicable, we shall be compelled, at some point, to bring in a reference to a particular with which we are acquainted. Such reference is involved in any mention of past, present, and future (as opposed to definite dates), or of here and there, or of what others have told us.Thus it would seem that, in some way or other, a description known to be applicable to a particular must involve some reference to a particular with which we are acquainted, if our knowledge about the thing described is not to be merely what follows logically from the description. For example, the most long-lived of men is a description which must apply to some man, but we can make no judgments concerning this man which involve knowledge about him beyond what the description gives.If, however, we say, the first Chancellor of the German Empire was an astute diplomatist, we can only be assu red Pg4Pg4 158MYSTICISM AND LOGIC of the truth of our judgment in virtue of something with which we are acquainted? usually a testimony heard or read. Considered psychologically, apart from the information we mother to others, apart from the fact about the actual Bismarck, which gives importance to our judgment, the thought we actually have contains the one or more particulars involved, and otherwise consists wholly of concepts.All names of places? London, England, Europe, the earth, the Solar System? similarly involve, when used, descriptions which start from some one or more particulars with which we are acquainted. I suspect that even the Universe, as considered by metaphysics, involves such a connection with particulars. In logic, on the contrary, where we are concerned not merely with what does exist, but with whatever might or could exist or be, no reference to actual particulars is involved.It would seem that, when we make a statement about something only known by descripti on, we often pin down to make our statement, not in the form involving the description, but about the actual thing described. That is to say, when we say anything about Bismarck, we should like, if we could, to make the judgment which Bismarck alone can make, namely, the judgment of which he himself is a constituent. In this we are of necessity defeated, since the actual Bismarck is unknown to us.But we know that there is an object B called Bismarck, and that B was an astute diplomatist. We can thus describe the proposition we should like to affirm, namely, B was an astute diplomatist, where B is the object which was Bismarck. What enables us to communicate in spite of the varying descriptions we employ is that we know there is a align proposition concerning the actual Bismarck, and that, however we may vary the description (so long as the description is correct), the proposition described is still the same.This proposition, which is described and is known to be true, is what int erests us but we are not acquainted with the proposition itself, and do not know it, though we know it is true. It will be seen that there are various stages in the removal from acquaintance with particulars there is Bismarck to people who knew him, Bismarck to those who only know of him through history, the man with the iron mask, the longest-lived of men. These are progressively further removed from acquaintance with particulars, and there is a similar hierarchy in the region of universals.Many universals, like many particulars, are only known to us by description. But here, as in the case of particulars, knowledge concerning what is known by description is in the end reducible to knowledge concerning what is known by acquaintance. KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE 159 The funda psychic epistemological principle in the analysis of propositions containing descriptions is this Every proposition which we can understand must be mollifyd wholly of constituents with which we are acquainted.Fr om what has been said already, it will be plain why I exponent this principle, and how I propose to meet the case of propositions which at first sight contravene it. Let us begin with the savvys for supposing the principle true. The chief condition for supposing the principle true is that it seems scarcely possible to believe that we can make a judgment or entertain a conjecture without astute what it is that we are adjudicate or supposing about. If we make a judgment about (say) Julius Caesar, it is plain that the actual person who was Julius Caesar is not a constituent of the judgment.But before going further, it may be well to explain what I mean when I say that this or that is a constituent of a judgment, or of a proposition which we understand. To begin with judgments a judgment, as an go throughrence, I take to be a relation of a mind to several entities, namely, the entities which compose what is judged. If, e. g. I judge that A loves B, the judgment as an event consis ts in the existence, at a certain moment, of a specific four-term relation, called judging, between me and A and love and B.That is to say, at the time when I judge, there is a certain complex whose terms are myself and A and love and B, and whose relating relation is judging. My reasons for this view have been set forth elsewhere,1 and I shall not repeat them here. Assuming this view of judgment, the constituents of the judgment are simply the constituents of the complex which is the judgment- Thus, in the above case, the constituents are myself and A and love and B and judging. But myself and judging are constituents shared by all my judgments thus the distinctive constituents of the particular judgment in question are A and love and B.Coming now to what is meant by understanding a proposition, I should say that there is another relation possible between me and A and love and B, which is called my supposing that A loves B. 2 When we can suppose that A loves B, we understand the pr oposition A loves B. Thus we often understand a proposition in cases where we have not enough knowledge to make a judgment. 1 Philosophical Essays, The Nature of Truth. I have been persuaded by Mr Wittgenstein that this possibility is somewhat unduly simple, but the modification which I believe it to require does not affect the above argument 1917. cf. Meinong, Ueber Annahmen, passim. I formerly divinatory, contrary to Meinongs view, that the relationship of supposing might be merely that of presentation. In this view I now think I was mistaken, and Meinong is right. But my present view depends upon the theory that both(prenominal) in judgment and in assumption there is no single Objective, but the several constituents of the judgment or asaumption are in a many-term relation to the mind. Pg5Pg5 160MYSTICISM AND LOGIC Supposing, like judging, is a many-term relation, of which a mind is one term.The other terms of the relation are called the constituents of the proposition suppose d. Thus the principle which I enunciated may be re-stated as follows Whenever a relation of supposing or judging occurs, the terms to which the supposing or judging mind is related by the relation of supposing or judging must be terms with which the mind in question is acquainted. This is merely to say that we cannot make a judgment or a supposition without knowing what it is that we are making our judgment or supposition about.It seems to me that the truth of this principle is evident as soon as the principle is silent I shall, therefore, in what follows, assume the principle, and use it as a film in analysing judgments that contain descriptions. Returning now to Julius Caesar, I assume that it will be admitted that he himself is not a constituent of any judgment which I can make. But at this point it is necessary to understand the view that judgments are serene of something called thinkers, and that it is the idea of Julius Caesar that is a constituent of my judgment.I believ e the plausibility of this view rests upon a failure to form a right theory of descriptions. We may mean by my idea of Julius Caesar the things that I know about him, e. g. that he conquered Gaul, was assassinated on the Ides of March, and is a plague to schoolboys. Now I am admitting, and indeed contending, that in night club to discover what is actually in my mind when I judge about Julius Caesar, we must exchange for the proper name a description made up of some of the things I know about him. (A description which will often serve to express my thought is the man whose name wasJulius Caesar. For whatever else I may have bury about him, it is plain that when I mention him I have not forgotten that that was his name. ) But although I think the theory that judgments consist of ideas may have been suggested in some such way, yet I think the theory itself is fundamentally mistaken. The view seems to be that there is some mental existent which may be called the idea of something right(prenominal) the mind of the person who has the idea, and that, since judgment is a mental event, its constituents must be constituents of the mind of the person judging.But in this view ideas become a veil between us and outside things? we never really, in knowledge, attain to the things we are supposed to be knowing about, but only to the ideas of those things. The relation of mind, idea, and object, on this view, is utterly obscure, and, so far as I can see, nothing discoverable by management warrants the intrusion of the idea between the mind and the object. I suspect that the view ii fostered by the dislike of relations, and that it is felt the mindKNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCEl6l could not know objects unless there were something in the mind which could be called the state of knowing the object. Such a view, however, leads at once to a vicious endless regress, since the relation of idea to object will have to be explained by supposing that the idea itself has an idea of the object, and so on ad infinitum. I therefore see no reason to believe that, when we are acquainted with an object, there is in us something which can be called the idea of the object.On the contrary, I hold that acquaintance is wholly a relation, not demanding any such constituent of the mind as is supposed by advocates of ideas. This is, of course, a large question, and one which would take us far from our subject if it were adequately discussed. I therefore content myself with the above indications, and with the corollary that, in judging, the actual objects concerning which we judge, rather than any supposed purely mental entities, are constituents of the complex which is the judgment.When, therefore, I say that we must substitute for Julius Caesar some description of Julius Caesar, in order to discover the substance of a judgment nominally about him, I am not truism that we must substitute an idea. Suppose our description is the man whose name was Julius Caesar. Let our judgmen t be Julius Caesar was assassinated. Then it becomes the man whose name was Julius Caesar was assassinated. Here Julius Caesar is a noise or shape with which we are acquainted, and all the other constituents of the judgment (neglecting the tense in was) are concepts with which we are acquainted.Thus our judgment is wholly reduced to constituents with which we are acquainted, but Julius Caesar himself has ceased to be a constituent of our judgment. This, however, requires a proviso, to be further explained shortly, namely, that the man whose name was Julius Caesar must not, as a whole, be a constituent of our judgment, that is to say, this phrase must not, as a whole, have a mean which enters into the judgment. Any right analysis of the judgment, therefore, must break up this phrase, and not treat it as a subordinate complex which is part of the judgment.The judgment the man whose name was Julius Caesar was assassinated may be interpreted as import one and only one man was called J ulius Caesar, and that one was assassinated. Here it is plain that there is no constituent corresponding to the phrase, the man whose name was Julius Caesar. Thus there is no reason to regard this phrase as expressing a constituent of the judgment, and we have seen that this phrase must be broken up if we are to be acquainted with all the constituents of the judgment. This conclusion, which we have reached from considerations concerned with the theory of knowledge, is also forced uponPg6Pg6 162MYSTICISM AND LOGIC us by logical considerations, which must now be briefly reviewed. It is common to distinguish two aspects, substance and lengthiness, in such phrases as the indite of Waverley. The meaning will be a certain complex consisting (at least) of rootship and Waverley with some relation the address will be Scott. Similarly feather-less bipeds will have a complex meaning, containing as constituents the presence of two feet and the absence of feathers, speckle its lengthiness will be the class of men.Thus when we say Scott is the write of Waverley or men are the same as featherless bipeds, we are asserting an individuality of denotation, and this assertion is cost making because of the assortment of meaning. 1 I believe that the duality of meaning and denotation, though capable of a true interpretation, is misleading if taken as fundamental. The denotation, I believe, is not a constituent of the proposition, except in the case of proper names, i. e. of words which do not assign a property to an object, but merely and solely name it.And I should hold further that, in this sense, there are only two words which are strictly proper names of particulars, namely, T and this. 2 One reason for not believing the denotation to be a constituent of the proposition is that we may know the proposition even when we are not acquainted with the denotation. The proposition the source of Waverley is a novelist was known to people who did not know that the compose of Waverley denoted Scott. This reason has been already sufficiently emphasized.A second reason is that propositions concerning the so-and-so are possible even when the so-and-so has no denotation. Take, e. g. the golden mountain does not exist or the round square is self- contradictory. If we are to preserve the duality of meaning and denotation, we have to say, with Meinong, that there are such objects as the golden mountain and the round square, although these objects do not have being. We even have to admit that the existent round square is existent, but does not exist. 3 Meinong does not regard this as a contradition, but I fail to see that it is not one.Indeed, it seems to me evident that the judgment there is no such object as the round square does not presuppose that there is such an object. If this is admitted, however, we are led to the conclusion that, by parity of form, no judgment concerning the so-and-so actually involves the so-and-so as a constituent. 1 This view has b een recently advocated by turn tail E. E. C. Jones. A New Law of Thought and its Implications, Mind, January, 1911. * I should now boot out I from proper names in the strict sense, and retain only this 1917. ? Meinongj Ueber Annahmen, second ed. , Leipzig, 1910, p. 141. KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE 163Miss Jones1 contends that there is no difficulty in admitting contradictory predicates concerning such an object as the present King of France, on the ground that this object is in itself contradictory. Now it might, of course, be argued that this object, unlike the round square, is not self-contradictory, but merely non-existent. This, however, would not go to the root of the matter. The real objection to such an argument is that the law of contradiction ought not to be stated in the traditional form A is not both B and not B, but in the form no proposition is both true and false*.The traditional form only applies to certain propositions, namely, to those which attribute a predicate to a subject. When the law is stated of propositions, sooner of being stated concerning subjects and predicates it is at once evident that propositions about the present King of France or the round square can form no exception, but are just as incapable of being both true and false as other propositions. Miss Jones2 argues that Scott is the author of Waverley asserts identity of denotation between Scott and the author of Waverley.But there is some difficulty in choosing among alternative meanings of this contention. In the first place, it should be observed that the author of Waverley is not a mere name, like Scott. Scott is merely a noise or shape conventionally used to designate a certain person it gives us no information about that person, and has nothing that can be called meaning as opposed to denotation. (I neglect the fact, considered above, that even proper names, as a rule, really stand for descriptions. But the author of Waverley is not merely conventionally a name for Scot t the element of mere convention belongs here to the separate words, the and author and of and Waverley. Given what these words stand for, the author of Waverley is no longer arbitrary. When it is said that Scott is the author of Waverley, we are not stating that these are two names for one man, as we should be if we said Scott is Sir Walter. A mans name is what he is called, but however much Scott had been called the author of Waverley, that would not have made im be the author it was necessary for him actually to write Waverley, which was a fact having nothing to do with names. If, then, we are asserting identity of denotation, we must not mean by denotation the mere relation of a name to the thing named. In fact, it would be nearer to the truth to say that the meaning of Scott is the denotation of the author of Waverley. The relation of Scott* to Scott is that Scott means Scott, just as the relation of author to the concept which is so called is that author means this concept. 1 Mind, July, 1910, p. 80. Mind, July, 1910. p. 379. Pg7Pg7 164MYSTICISM AND LOGIC Thus if we distinguish meaning and denotation in the author of Waverley, we shall have to say that Scott has meaning but not denotation. Also when we say Scott is the author of Waverley, the meaning of the author of Waverley is relevant to our assertion. For if the denotation alone were relevant, any other phrase with the same denotation would give the same proposition. Thus Scott is the author of Marmion would be the same proposition as Scott is the author of Waverley.But this is merely not the case, since from the first we learn that Scott wrote Marmion and from the second we learn that he wrote Waverley, but the first tells us nothing about Waverley and the second nothing about Marmion. Hence the meaning of the author of Waverley as opposed to the denotation, is certainly relevant to Scott is the author of Waverley. We have thus agreed that the author of Waverley is not a mere name, and that its me aning is relevant in propositions in which it occurs.Thus if we are to say, as Miss Jones does, that Scott is the author of Waverley asserts an identity of denotation, we must regard the denotation of the author of Waverley as the denotation of what is meant by the author of Waverley. Let us call the meaning of the author of Waverley M. Thus M is what the author of Waverley means. Then we are to suppose that Scott is the author of Waverley means Scott is the denotation of M But here we are explaining our proposition by another of the same form, and thus we have made no progress towards a real explanation. The denotation of M, like the author of Waverley, has both meaning and denotation, on the theory we are examining. If we call its meaning M, our proposition becomes Scott is the denotation of M. But this leads at once to an endless regress. Thus the attempt to regard our proposition as asserting identity of denotation breaks down, and it becomes imperative to find some other analys is. When this analysis has been completed, we shall be able to reinterpret the phrase identity of denotation, which remains obscure so long as it is taken as fundamental.The first point to observe is that, in any proposition about the author of Waverley, provided Scott is not explicitly mentioned, the denotation itself, i. e. Scott, does not occur, but only the concept of denotation, which will be stand for by a variable. Suppose we say the author of Waverley was the author of Marmion, we are certainly not saying that both were Scott? we may have forgotten that there was such a person as Scott. We are saying that there is some man who was the author of Waverley and the author of Marmion.That Is to say, there is someone who wrote Waverley and Marmion, and no one else wrote them. Thus the identity is that of a variable, i. e. of KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE 165 an identifiable subject, someone. This is why we can understand propositions about the author of Waverley, without knowing who he was. When we say the author of Waverley was a poet, we mean one and only one man wrote Waverley, and he was a poet when we say the author of Waverley was Scott we mean one and only one man wrote Waverley, and he was Scott. Here the identity is between a variable, i. . an indeterminate subject (he), and Scott the author of Waverley has been analysed away, and no longer appears as a constituent of the proposition. 1 The reason why it is imperative to analyse away the phrase, the author of Waverley may be stated as follows. It is plain that when we say the author of Waverley is the author of Marmion, the is expresses identity. We have seen also that the common denotation, namely Scott, is not a constituent of this proposition, while the meanings (if any) of the author of Waverley and the author of Marmion are not identical.We have seen also that, in any sense in which the meaning of a word is a constituent of a proposition in whose verbal expression the word occurs, Scott means the actual man Scott, in the same sense (so far as concerns our present discussion) in which author means a certain universal. Thus, if the author of Waverley were a subordinate complex in the above proposition, its meaning would have to be what was said to be identical with the meaning of the author of Marmion.This is plainly not the case and the only escape is to say that the author of Waverley does not, by itself, have a meaning, though phrases of which it is part do have a meaning. That is, in a right analysis of the above proposition, the author of Waverley must disappear. This is effected when the above proposition is analysed as meaning Some one wrote Waverley and no one else did, and that someone also wrote Marmion and no one else did. This may be more simply expressed by saying that the propositional conk x wrote Waverley and Marmion, and no one else did is capable of truth, i. e. ome value of x makes it true, but no other value does. Thus the true subject of our judgment is a propositional function, i. e. a complex containing an undetermined constituent, and becoming a proposition as soon as this constituent is determined. We may now define the denotation of a phrase. If we know that the proposition a is the so-and-so is true, i. e. that a is so-and-so and nothing else is, we call a the denotation of the phrase the so- 1 The theory which I am advocating is set forth fully, with the logical grounds in its favour, in Principia Mathematica, Vol. I, Introduction, Chap.Ill also, less fully, in Mind, October, 1905. Pg8Pg8 166 MYSTICISM AND LOGIC and-so. A very great many of the propositions we naturally make about the so-and-so will remain true or remain false if we substitute a for the so-and-so, where a is the denotation of the so-and-so. Such propositions will also remain true or remain false if we substitute for the so-and-so any other phrase having the same denotation. Hence, as practical men, we become interested in the denotation more than in the des cription, since the denotation decides as to the truth or falsehood of so many statements in which the description occurs.Moreover, as we saw earlier in considering the relations of description and acquaintance, we often wish to reach the denotation, and are only hindered by lack of acquaintance in such cases the description is merely the means we employ to get as near as possible to the denotation. Hence it naturally comes to be supposed that the denotation is part of the proposition in which the description occurs. But we have seen, both on logical and on epistemological grounds, that this is an error.The actual object (if any) which is the denotation is not (unless it is explicitly mentioned) a constituent of propositions in which descriptions occur and this is the reason why, in order to understand such propositions, we need acquaintance with the constituents of the description, but do not need acquaintance with its denotation. The first result of analysis, when applied to propo sitions whose grammatical subject is the so-and-so, is to substitute a variable as subject i. e. we obtain a proposition of the form There is something which alone is so-and-so, and that something is such-and-such. The further analysis of propositions concerning the so-and-so is thus merged in the problem of the nature of the variable, i. e. of the meanings of some, any, and all. This is a difficult problem, concerning which I do not intend to say anything at present. To sum up our whole discussion We began by distinguishing two sorts of knowledge of objects, namely, knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description. Of these it is only the former that brings the object itself before the mind. We have acquaintance with sense-data, with many universals, and possibly with ourselves, but not with physical objects or other minds.We have descriptive knowledge of an object when we know that it is the object having some property or properties with which we are acquainted that is so sa y, when we know that the property or properties in question belong to one object and no more, we are said to have knowledge of that one object by description, whether or not we are acquainted with the object. Our knowledge of physical objects and of other minds is only knowledge by description, the descriptions involved being usually KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE167 such as involve sense-data.All propositions diaphanous to us, whether or not they primarily concern things only known to us by description, are composed wholly of constituents with which we are acquainted, for a constituent with which we are not acquainted is unintelligible to us. A judgment, we found, is not composed of mental constituents called ideas, but consists of an occurrence whose constituents are a mind1 and certain objects, particulars or universals. (One at least must be a universal. ) When a judgment is rightly analysed, the objects which are constituents of it must all be objects with which the mind which is a constituent of it is acquainted.This conclusion forces us to analyse descriptive phrases occurring in propositions, and to say that the objects denoted by such phrases are not constituents of judgments in which such phrases occur (unless these objects are explicitly mentioned). This leads us to the view (recommended also on purely logical grounds) that when we say the author of Marmion was the author of Waverley, Scott himself is not a constituent of our judgement, and that the judgment cannot be explained by saying that it affirms identity of denotation with diversity of meaning. It also, plainly, does not assert identity of meaning.Such judgments, therefore, can only be analysed by breaking up the descriptive phrases, introducing a variable, and making prepositional functions the crowning(prenominal) subjects. In fact, the so-and-so is such-and-such will mean that fx is so-and-so and nothing else is, and x is such-and-such is capable of truth. The analysis of such judgments invo lves many fresh problems, but the discussion of these problems is not undertaken in the present paper. 11 use this phrase merely to denote the something psychological which enters into judgment, without intending to prejudge the question as to what this

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